X-Ray Diffraction

Yi Wang, Phillip H. Geil

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingChapter in an edited book (as author)Academic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


X-ray diffraction is an analytical technique that reveals the crystallographic structure of materials, especially thin films. In this chapter, we introduce X-rays and X-ray diffraction, and we present the general set up for the collection of X-ray diffraction data. Because X-ray diffraction yields the atomic structure of a material, it is also called characteristic X-ray. We present the X-ray tube and the synchrotron radiator as the two general types of X-ray source. We introduce small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), which belong to a family of X-ray scattering techniques used in the characterization of materials. X-ray scattering is a universal tool for exploring the structure of matter. We present the use of X-ray scattering to characterize protein composite films. SAXS and WAXS are used to determine the orientation and molecular spacing of thin films.
Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationNanotechnology Research Methods for Foods and Bioproducts
Number of pages17
ISBN (Print)9780813817316
Publication statusPublished - 20 Feb 2012
Externally publishedYes


  • Film
  • SAXS
  • Small-angle X-ray scattering
  • Structure
  • WAXS
  • Wide-angle X-ray scattering
  • X-ray diffraction
  • Zein

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
  • Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)

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