X-ray diffraction is an analytical technique that reveals the crystallographic structure of materials, especially thin films. In this chapter, we introduce X-rays and X-ray diffraction, and we present the general set up for the collection of X-ray diffraction data. Because X-ray diffraction yields the atomic structure of a material, it is also called characteristic X-ray. We present the X-ray tube and the synchrotron radiator as the two general types of X-ray source. We introduce small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and wide-angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), which belong to a family of X-ray scattering techniques used in the characterization of materials. X-ray scattering is a universal tool for exploring the structure of matter. We present the use of X-ray scattering to characterize protein composite films. SAXS and WAXS are used to determine the orientation and molecular spacing of thin films.
- Small-angle X-ray scattering
- Wide-angle X-ray scattering
- X-ray diffraction
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)
- Agricultural and Biological Sciences(all)