WSdesign: a mathematical design method for generating uniform and functionally gradient/hybrid wave springs, fabricated using additive manufacturing processes

Muhammad Rizwan ul Haq, Aamer Nazir, Hamza Azam, Jeng-Ywan Jeng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Design for additive manufacturing (DfAM) enables the design and fabrication of intricate but application-based functionally optimized geometries by reducing the manufacturing time. It also gave unlimited design freedom to alter any specific parameter and regenerate the design with improved mechanical properties. However, designing a complex and application-specific component needs comprehensive knowledge of drawing, intended usage, high expertise, and command of designing software with ample time. Mechanical springs, e.g., wave springs of uniform/complex shaped designs, consume a significant amount of manual hard work. A new design tool, WSdesign, is developed for constructing wave springs of different morphologies with uniform or varying design parameters or a combination of both. A graphical user interface (GUI) was developed in which the user can select the type of wave spring, which can be either uniform, functional gradient, or hybrid with parametric variation defined through Python code. The code is directly run in Autodesk Fusion 360 software which is used to transform that code into a 3D model with all defined features and can be saved in different formats or can be directly printed. Two designs, i.e., rectangular and variable thickness wave springs, were designed each using WSdesign and SolidWorks (manual method), manufactured, and analyzed by performing uniaxial compression testing. The results were compared with each other which were further validated by finite element analysis and found that both design strategies have negligible variations. Furthermore, several designs of complex-shaped wave springs were successfully designed and manufactured using fused deposition modeling (FDM), stereolithography (SLA), and powder bed fusion (MJF) technology with different materials, resulting in a good surface finish, smooth printability, and less dimensional variation, which proves the versatility of WSdesign. In addition, this methodology also enables to design of application-based wave springs for research and industrial usage as per load requirements without having in-depth design expertise and spending much less time.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)7763–7778
Number of pages16
JournalThe International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology
Issue number11-12
Publication statusPublished - 4 Aug 2022


  • Additive manufacturing
  • DfAM
  • Functionally graded wave spring
  • GUI
  • Hybrid wave spring
  • Python code
  • Wave spring

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Control and Systems Engineering
  • Software
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering


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