Writing to dictation and handwriting performance among Chinese children with dyslexia: Relationships with orthographic knowledge and perceptual-motor skills

Alice Cheng-Lai, Wai Ping Cecilia Tsang, Alan H L Chan, Amy G W Lo

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationships between writing to dictation, handwriting, orthographic, and perceptual-motor skills among Chinese children with dyslexia. A cross-sectional design was used. A total of 45 third graders with dyslexia were assessed. Results of stepwise multiple regression models showed that Chinese character naming was the only predictor associated with word dictation (β= .32); handwriting speed was related to deficits in rapid automatic naming (β= -.36) and saccadic efficiency (β= -.29), and visual-motor integration predicted both of the number of characters exceeded grid (β= -.41) and variability of character size (β= -.38). The findings provided support to a multi-stage working memory model of writing for explaining the possible underlying mechanism of writing to dictation and handwriting difficulties.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3372-3383
Number of pages12
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number10
Publication statusPublished - 1 Oct 2013


  • Chinese
  • Dictation
  • Dyslexia
  • Handwriting
  • Orthographic
  • Perceptual-motor skills

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology

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