Withdrawal behaviors and mental health among college students1

Tim M.H. Li, Chun Tung Li, Paul W.C. Wong, Jiannong Cao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Youth social withdrawal has raised clinical concerns, and prevention of withdrawal behavior is important yet difficult. While human evaluation of withdrawal behavior can be subjective, technology provides objective measurement for withdrawal behavior. This study aims to examine the association between withdrawal behaviors (home-stay and non-communication) and mental health status (stress, depression and loneliness). The open-access Student Life dataset, including the location and conversation information derived from the sensor data, stress levels, and pre- and post-questionnaires of depression (PHQ-9) and loneliness (RULS) of 47 college students over 10 weeks was used. Multilevel modeling and functional regression were employed for data analysis. Daily duration of home-stay was negatively associated with daily stress levels, and the interaction effect of daily duration of home-stay and non-communication were positively associated with daily stress levels and changes in PHQ-9 and RULS scores. Smartphone data is useful to provide adjunct information to the professional clinical judgement and early detection on withdrawal behavior.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)99-109
Number of pages11
JournalBehavioral Psychology/ Psicologia Conductual
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2017


  • Behavioral assessment
  • College students
  • Early intervention
  • Mental health
  • Social withdrawal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Experimental and Cognitive Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


Dive into the research topics of 'Withdrawal behaviors and mental health among college students1'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this