Who sits where? infrastructure-free in-vehicle cooperative positioning via smartphones

Zongjian He, Jiannong Cao, Xuefeng Liu, Shaojie Tang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


Seat-level positioning of a smartphone in a vehicle can provide a fine-grained context for many interesting in-vehicle applications, including driver distraction prevention, driving behavior estimation, in-vehicle services customization, etc. However, most of the existing work on in-vehicle positioning relies on special infrastructures, such as the stereo, cigarette lighter adapter or OBD (on-board diagnostic) adapter. In this work, we propose iLoc, an infrastructure-free, in-vehicle, cooperative positioning system via smartphones. iLoc does not require any extra devices and uses only embedded sensors in smartphones to determine the phones' seat-level locations in a car. In iLoc, in-vehicle smartphones automatically collect data during certain kinds of events and cooperatively determine the relative left/right and front/back locations. In addition, iLoc is tolerant to noisy data and possible sensor errors. We evaluate the performance of iLoc using experiments conducted in real driving scenarios. Results show that the positioning accuracy can reach 90% in the majority of cases and around 70% even in the worst-cases.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)11605-11628
Number of pages24
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - 30 Jun 2014


  • In-vehicle positioning
  • Opportunistic sensing
  • Signal processing
  • Smartphone sensing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Biochemistry
  • Instrumentation
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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