When Robot (Vs. Human) Employees Say “Sorry” Following Service Failure

Xingyu Wang, Yoo Hee Hwang, Priyanko Guchait

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


This paper aims to understand travelers’ responses to apologies of robot (vs. human) employees following service failures and how travelers’ age influences their responses. Using a scenario-based between-subject experimental design, Study 1 finds that human employees’ apologies (vs. no apologies) enhance travelers’ revisit intention while robot employees’ apologies do not have such an effect. Study 2 reveals that human employees’ apologies increase satisfaction among younger travelers, whereas robot employees’ apologies increase satisfaction among older travelers. Managers in the hospitality and tourism industry may train their employees (vs. design robot employees’ apology messages) effectively to serve travelers in different ages.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)540-562
Number of pages23
JournalInternational Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Administration
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2023


  • apology
  • service recovery
  • Service robot

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


Dive into the research topics of 'When Robot (Vs. Human) Employees Say “Sorry” Following Service Failure'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this