WCET-Aware Energy-Efficient Data Allocation on Scratchpad Memory for Real-Time Embedded Systems

Zhu Wang, Zonghua Gu, Zili Shao

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Scratchpad memory (SPM) is a software-managed, small, on-chip form of memory. For real-time embedded systems, worst case execution time (WCET) is more important than average-case performance. We address the problem of allocating program data variables between main memory and SPM to minimize the energy consumption due to data variable accesses, while respecting a given upper bound on a program's WCET. We present an optimal branch-and-bound algorithm; and an efficient heuristic algorithm. Our approach provides a flexible framework for the designer to perform tradeoff analysis between the program WCET and the energy consumption based on application requirements.
Original languageEnglish
Article number6996006
Pages (from-to)2700-2704
Number of pages5
JournalIEEE Transactions on Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI) Systems
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2015


  • Embedded systems
  • scratchpad memory (SPM)
  • Worst case execution time (WCET)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Software
  • Hardware and Architecture
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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