Waiting time in emergency evacuation of crowded public transport terminals

Wan Ki Chow, Candy M Y Ng

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

66 Citations (Scopus)


Emergency evacuation in crowded public transport terminals in the Far East is a matter of great concern. Passengers are jammed at the exits during peak hours, even under normal evacuation. The waiting time required would be very long and that would extend the evacuation process. The waiting time under crowded condition should be minimized by providing more exits; or implementing proper fire safety management. In this paper, waiting time during emergency evacuation in crowded halls was studied. A waiting time index (WTI) was proposed to quantify jamming at the exits. An airport terminal with fire safety provided by performance-based design was taken as an example to illustrate the concept. Two evacuation models, buildingEXODUS and SIMULEX, were applied to study emergency evacuation in the terminal under crowded conditions. Different occupancy levels in local codes were considered under fire and normal conditions in the departure hall.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)844-857
Number of pages14
JournalSafety Science
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2008
Externally publishedYes


  • BuildingEXODUS
  • Numerical simulation
  • Waiting time index

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemical Health and Safety
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality
  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health
  • Health Professions(all)
  • Human Factors and Ergonomics
  • Safety Research


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