Vortex dynamics in starting square water jets

J.J. Ai, Ching Man Yu, A.W.-K. Law, L.P. Chua

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

33 Citations (Scopus)


This paper presents the results of an experimental study on starting square jets at three Reynolds numbers (Re=U0De/v=2358,3528,4716) utilizing planar laser induced fluorescence. Starting circular jets under the same initial Re were also investigated as a basis for comparison. Observations showed that for both circular and square jets, the rate of penetration is almost constant within the first four diameters from the exit plane. Beyond that, the rate reaches an asymptotic behavior that is inversely proportional to the square root of time (t1/2). It was also found that the jet front travels slower in square jets. The interaction and deformation between the spanwise and streamwise vortices in square jets lead to an enhanced entrainment. The phenomena of axis switching, vortex pinch-off, vortices leapfrogging and coalescence were all observed in the experiments and their formation mechanisms are discussed in detail. The normalized value for the pinch-off time obtained is found to be about 7 and the expansion rate of the head vortex core is proportional to t1.5. © 2005 American Institute of Physics.
Original languageEnglish
Article number014106
JournalPhysics of Fluids
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2005
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics


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