This study seeks to identify similarities and differences between vocational and academic-level bachelor programs within Indonesian hospitality and tourism education. Both the abilities and knowledge profiles of the graduates and the curriculum content are considered. These degrees were developed in 2008 following government recognition of hospitality and tourism as a field of study. Formerly these areas of study were only offered at diploma levels with a strong vocational emphasis. The findings from archival and interview assessments indicate that although subtle differences exist in the content of vocational and academic bachelor offerings, they are largely indistinguishable. A more searching underpinning of the programs using a distinctive educational philosophy is suggested to guide the aims and objectives of the different degrees. Such a structured approach could serve as a guideline for the selection of course content and teaching and learning endeavors.
- Academic bachelor
- course content
- hospitality and tourism education
- vocational bachelor
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management