Visual-perceptual-kinesthetic inputs on influencing writing performances in children with handwriting difficulties

Linda F.L. Tse, Kannan C. Thanapalan, Che Hin Chan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

24 Citations (Scopus)


This study investigated the role of visual-perceptual input in writing Chinese characters among senior school-aged children who had handwriting difficulties (CHD). The participants were 27 CHD (9-11 years old) and 61 normally developed control. There were three writing conditions: copying, and dictations with or without visual feedback. The motor-free subtests of the Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-2) were conducted. The CHD group showed significantly slower mean speeds of character production and less legibility of produced characters than the control group in all writing conditions (ps. <. 0.001). There were significant deteriorations in legibility from copying to dictation without visual feedback. Nevertheless, the Group by Condition interaction effect was not statistically significant. Only position in space of DTVP-2 was significantly correlated with the legibility among CHD (r=-0.62, p=0.001). Poor legibility seems to be related to the less-intact spatial representation of the characters in working memory, which can be rectified by viewing the characters during writing. Visual feedback regarding one's own actions in writing can also improve legibility of characters among these children.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-347
Number of pages8
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2014


  • Handwriting
  • Learning disabilities
  • Legibility
  • Writing Chinese

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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