Virtual reality based multiple life skill training for intellectual disability: A multicenter randomized controlled trial

James Chung-Wai Cheung, Ming Ni, Andy Yiu-Chau Tam, Tim Tin-Chun Chan, Alyssa Ka-Yan Cheung, Ocean Yu-Hong Tsang, Chi-Bun Yip, Wing-Kai Lam, Duo Wai-Chi Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


Life skill-based training is essential for intellectual disabled individuals to regain autonomy and social inclusion. Virtual reality (VR) could deliver a nascent application that is more engaging and secure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the training effects of the VR-based multiple life skill training program on life skill performance, self-efficacy, memory, cognitive and behavioral functions via a multicenter randomized controlled trial. A total of 145 intellectual disabled participants were recruited for a randomized controlled trial with three intervention arms: VR (n = 42); traditional (n = 53); and control (n = 50). The life skill tasks for the interventions included 1) grocery shopping, 2) cooking, and 3) kitchen cleaning. Outcome measures were performance scores for the three tasks, self-efficacy scale, digit span score, and Frontal Assessment Battery score, graded by blinded assessors. Before-after effects of each group were evaluated using separated Wilcoxon Signed-rank tests. VR significantly improved cooking, cleaning performance, and memory span, while traditional training significantly improved shopping, cooking, and cleaning tasks. The generalized estimating equation evaluated effects between groups adjusted for age, gender and intelligence quotient (IQ). VR had significantly larger improvement effects in cooking and cleaning than the control group and memory span compared to traditional training and controls groups. IQ appeared to be a significant confounder on the training effect. Future work may consider developing artificial intelligence to customize programs depending on IQ level.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)121-130
Number of pages10
JournalEngineered Regeneration
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2022


  • Mental retardation
  • Intellectual development
  • X-reality
  • Immersive rehabilitation
  • Metaverse


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