Purpose: To investigate a novel deep-learning network that synthesizes virtual contrast-enhanced T1-weighted (vceT1w) magnetic resonance images (MRI) from multimodality contrast-free MRI for patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods and Materials: This article presents a retrospective analysis of multiparametric MRI, with and without contrast enhancement by gadolinium-based contrast agents (GBCAs), obtained from 64 biopsy-proven cases of NPC treated at Hong Kong Queen Elizabeth Hospital. A multimodality-guided synergistic neural network (MMgSN-Net) was developed to leverage complementary information between contrast-free T1-weighted and T2-weighted MRI for vceT1w MRI synthesis. Thirty-five patients were randomly selected for model training, whereas 29 patients were selected for model testing. The synthetic images generated from MMgSN-Net were quantitatively evaluated against real GBCA-enhanced T1-weighted MRI using a series of statistical evaluating metrics, which include mean absolute error (MAE), mean squared error (MSE), structural similarity index (SSIM), and peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR). Qualitative visual assessment between the real and synthetic MRI was also performed. Effectiveness of our MMgSN-Net was compared with 3 state-of-the-art deep-learning networks, including U-Net, CycleGAN, and Hi-Net, both quantitatively and qualitatively. Furthermore, a Turing test was performed by 7 board-certified radiation oncologists from 4 hospitals for assessing authenticity of the synthesized vceT1w MRI against the real GBCA-enhanced T1-weighted MRI. Results: Results from the quantitative evaluations demonstrated that our MMgSN-Net outperformed U-Net, CycleGAN and Hi-Net, yielding the top-ranked scores in averaged MAE (44.50 ± 13.01), MSE (9193.22 ± 5405.00), SSIM (0.887 ± 0.042), and PSNR (33.17 ± 2.14). Furthermore, the mean accuracy of the 7 readers in the Turing tests was determined to be 49.43%, equivalent to random guessing (ie, 50%) in distinguishing between real GBCA-enhanced T1-weighted and synthetic vceT1w MRI. Qualitative evaluation indicated that MMgSN-Net gave the best approximation to the ground-truth images, particularly in visualization of tumor-to-muscle interface and the intratumor texture information. Conclusions: Our MMgSN-Net was capable of synthesizing highly realistic vceT1w MRI that outperformed the 3 comparable state-of-the-art networks.
|Number of pages||12|
|Journal||International Journal of Radiation Oncology Biology Physics|
|Publication status||Published - 15 Mar 2022|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
- Cancer Research