Vertical-borehole ground-coupled heat pumps: A review of models and systems

Hongxing Yang, P. Cui, Z. Fang

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

566 Citations (Scopus)


A large number of ground-coupled heat pump (GCHP) systems have been used in residential and commercial buildings throughout the world due to the attractive advantages of high efficiency and environmental friendliness. This paper gives a detailed literature review of the research and developments of the vertical-borehole GCHP technology for applications in air-conditioning. A general introduction on the ground source heat pump system and its development is briefly presented first. Then, the most typical simulation models of the vertical ground heat exchangers currently available are summarized in detail including the heat transfer processes outside and inside the boreholes. The various design/simulation programs for vertical GCHP systems primarily based on the typical simulation models are also reviewed in this paper. Finally, the various hybrid GCHP systems for cooling or heating-dominated buildings are well described. It is found that the GCHP technology can be used both in cold and hot weather areas and the energy saving potential is significant.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)16-27
Number of pages12
JournalApplied Energy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010


  • Ground heat exchanger
  • Ground-coupled heat pump
  • Heat transfer
  • Hybrid ground-coupled heat pump

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • General Energy


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