Variable-Inertia Emulation Control Scheme for VSC-HVDC Transmission Systems

Zhipeng Shen, Jiebei Zhu, Leijiao Ge, Siqi Bu, Junbo Zhao, Chi Yung Chung, Xialin Li, Chengshan Wang

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

37 Citations (Scopus)


This paper proposes a novel variable-inertia emulation control (VIEC) scheme that enables voltage-source-converter based high-voltage DC (VSC-HVDC) transmission systems to flexibly support AC grid frequency stability like synchronous generators. The VIEC scheme allows us to extract the energy from the augmented DC capacitance for inertia emulation by controlling the DC voltage without affecting the stability of the AC system connected on the remote side. In particular, with the proposed VIEC scheme, the inertia time constant can be flexibly emulated and its value can be automatically adjusted according to the rate of change of grid frequency as well as grid frequency deviations. This leads to more effective inertial support across different timescales. Modal analysis is carried out to investigate the impacts of inertia and DC capacitance, and to obtain the optimal control parameters. The effectiveness and advantages of the proposed VIEC scheme are demonstrated on an IEEE benchmark system in the presence of faults and load changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)629-639
Number of pages11
JournalIEEE Transactions on Power Systems
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2022


  • Frequency response
  • HVDC transmission control
  • Inertia Control
  • Power system transients
  • Pulse width modulated power converters

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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