Validation of the Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory for Chinese Women

Denise Shuk Ting Cheung, Agnes Tiwari, Ko Ling Edward Chan, Daniel Yee Tak Fong, Pui Hing Chau, Felix Kwan Hok Yuen, Richard M. Tolman

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

5 Citations (Scopus)


This study aimed to revise and validate a Chinese version of Psychological Maltreatment of Women Inventory (C-PMWI). In the preparation phase, the PMWI was first revised for the possible cultural differences between Chinese and non-Chinese women. Supplementary items on use of electronic devices as a contemporary form of monitoring were added. Forward and back translated items were reviewed by a panel of intimate partner violence (IPV) experts, resulting in the scale-level content validity index of 0.94. Cognitive debriefing was conducted to confirm comprehensibility. The newly revised measure was administered to the sample of 1,198 Chinese women, recruited from community centers and shelters in Hong Kong. Exploratory factor analysis conducted on data from half the sample revealed a two-factor structure similar to the original English version: emotional-verbal and dominance-isolation. This structure was verified by confirmatory factor analysis with the other half of the sample. Known-groups validity was demonstrated by significant differences in scores between women with different relationship histories. Moderate-to-strong correlations of the C-PMWI with other forms of IPV, controlling behaviors, relationship satisfaction, and depression established convergent validity. The C-PMWI showed good internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alpha >.9 for the entire scale and each subscale. The intraclass correlation across administrations 2 weeks was >.9, demonstrating test–retest reliability. The use of the comprehensive validation procedures in the present study provided evidence for both cultural appropriateness and satisfactory psychometric properties of the C-PMWI. The C-PMWI shows promise as a useful instrument for research and clinical practice with Chinese women.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)4614-4639
Number of pages26
JournalJournal of Interpersonal Violence
Issue number21-22
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2020


  • assessment
  • battered women
  • domestic violence
  • psychological maltreatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Psychology
  • Applied Psychology


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