Validation of the Chinese Version of the Children’s ChronoType Questionnaire (CCTQ) in school-aged children

Wing Fai Yeung, Branda Yee Man Yu, Yuan Shan Ho, Fiona Yan Yee Ho, Ka Fai Chung, Regina Lai Tong Lee, Corine Wong, Mei Yuk Lam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The Children’s ChronoType Questionnaire (CCTQ) is a valid and reliable measure for assessing prepubertal children aged 4–11 years. The CCTQ is a parent-reported, 27-item questionnaire consisting of sleep-wake parameters for scheduled and free days (16 items), a morningness/eveningness scale (M/E, 10 items), and a five-point, single-item, chronotype score. The CCTQ has been translated into different languages, but a Chinese version is not available. In the present study, we aimed to produce a Chinese version of the CCTQ and test its validity and reliability on school-aged children. A total of 555 children aged 7–11 years were recruited from five primary schools. The parents were told to complete the CCTQ and record their child’s sleep pattern in a 7-day sleep diary. Sixty-six children and their parents were invited to participate in determining the test-retest reliability of the CCTQ over a 2-week interval, and their sleep patterns were assessed using a sleep diary. The internal consistency of the Chinese CCTQ M/E score as measured by Cronbach’s alpha was acceptable (0.74). Regarding the test-retest reliability of the instrument, moderate to strong Spearman’s correlation coefficients were found for most of the CCTQ–sleep-wake items (ρ = 0.52–0.86) and for the CCTQ-M/E total score (ρ = 0.78). For the concurrent validity, Spearman’s correlations between the sleep-wake parameters of the CCTQ and the sleep diary were moderate to high on both the scheduled days (ρ = 0.54 to 0.87) and free days (ρ = 0.36 to 0.60). For the correlations measured with actigraphs, significant correlations were found in the CCTQ sleep-wake parameters, including bedtime, get-up time, sleep latency, sleep period, time in bed, and mid-sleep point on both the scheduled (ρ = 0.31 to 0.76) and free days (ρ = 0.27 to 0.52), but not in sleep latency and sleep period on free days. The results of the present study suggest that the Chinese version of the CCTQ is a reliable and valid tool for assessing chronotypes in Chinese school-aged children in Hong Kong.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1681-1690
Number of pages10
JournalChronobiology International
Issue number12
Publication statusPublished - 2 Dec 2019


  • children
  • chronotype
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Hong Kong Chinese
  • school-aged
  • sleep
  • validation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physiology
  • Physiology (medical)


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