In this study, kinetics, influencing factors and potential mechanisms involved in the degradation of chloral hydrate (CH) by UV/peroxymonosulfate (PMS) process were demonstrated. The degradation rate of CH could reach 89.6% by UV254/PMS process, significantly exceeding UV300/PMS (0.7%), UV350/PMS (6.3%), UV254 direct photolysis (9.0%) and PMS alone (0.0%) processes. CH degradation in UV254/PMS system followed pseudo first-order degradation kinetics with an apparent rate constant of 0.186 min−1, which was suppressed by Cl− and HCO3−. The optimal pH for CH degradation was around 5.0. Direct mineralization accounted for the CH degradation in UV/PMS system. Interestingly, the addition of PMS at the neutral condition before UV irradiation transferred CH into trichloroacetic acid (TCAA). The transformation efficiency of CH into TCAA at 10 min was enhanced from 2.17%–40.38% with the elevation of initial pH from 7.0–8.0. The subsequent exposure of UV lamps ceased the transformation of CH into TCAA and facilitated the direct mineralization of CH, but it did not work in the refractory TCAA degradation. Finally, it was revealed that HO[rad] predominantly participated CH degradation in UV/PMS process, while O2[rad]− was responsible for the transformation of CH into TCAA by addition of PMS before UV irradiation.
- Chloral hydrate
- Trichloroacetic acid
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Environmental Engineering
- Environmental Chemistry
- Waste Management and Disposal
- Health, Toxicology and Mutagenesis