Using deep leaning models to detect ophthalmic diseases: A comparative study

Zhixi Li, Xinxing Guo, Jian Zhang, Xing Liu, Robert Chang, Mingguang He

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Purpose: The aim of this study was to prospectively quantify the level of agreement among the deep learning system, non-physician graders, and general ophthalmologists with different levels of clinical experience in detecting referable diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Methods: Deep learning systems for diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucomatous optic neuropathy classification, with accuracy proven through internal and external validation, were established using 210,473 fundus photographs. Five trained non-physician graders and 47 general ophthalmologists from China were chosen randomly and included in the analysis. A test set of 300 fundus photographs were randomly identified from an independent dataset of 42,388 gradable images. The grading outcomes of five retinal and five glaucoma specialists were used as the reference standard that was considered achieved when ≥50% of gradings were consistent among the included specialists. The area under receiver operator characteristic curve of different groups in relation to the reference standard was used to compare agreement for referable diabetic retinopathy, age-related macular degeneration, and glaucomatous optic neuropathy. Results: The test set included 45 images (15.0%) with referable diabetic retinopathy, 46 (15.3%) with age-related macular degeneration, 46 (15.3%) with glaucomatous optic neuropathy, and 163 (55.4%) without these diseases. The area under receiver operator characteristic curve for non-physician graders, ophthalmologists with 3–5 years of clinical practice, ophthalmologists with 5–10 years of clinical practice, ophthalmologists with >10 years of clinical practice, and the deep learning system for referable diabetic retinopathy were 0.984, 0.964, 0.965, 0.954, and 0.990 (p = 0.415), respectively. The results for referable age-related macular degeneration were 0.912, 0.933, 0.946, 0.958, and 0.945, respectively, (p = 0.145), and 0.675, 0.862, 0.894, 0.976, and 0.994 for referable glaucomatous optic neuropathy, respectively (p < 0.001). Conclusion: The findings of this study suggest that the accuracy of this deep learning system is comparable to that of trained non-physician graders and general ophthalmologists for referable diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration, but the deep learning system performance is better than that of trained non-physician graders for the detection of referable glaucomatous optic neuropathy.
Original languageEnglish
Article number1115032
Pages (from-to)1-11
Number of pages11
JournalFrontiers in Medicine
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • age-related macular degeneration
  • deep learning
  • diabetic retinopathy
  • fundus photograph
  • glaucomatous optic neuropathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine

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