Objective. This study aimed to examine the usability of a newly designed virtual reality (VR) environment simulating the operation of an automated teller machine (ATM) for assessment and training. Design. Part I involved evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of a non-immersive VR program simulating an ATM (VR-ATM). Part II consisted of a clinical trial providing baseline and post-intervention outcome assessments. Setting. A rehabilitation hospital and university-based teaching facilities were used as the setting. Participants. A total of 24 persons in the community with acquired brain injury (ABI) - 14 in Part I and 10 in Part II - made up the participants in the study. Interventions. In Part I, participants were randomized to receive instruction in either an "early" or a "late" VR-ATM program and were assessed using both the VR program and a real ATM. In Part II, participants were assigned in matched pairs to either VR training or computer-assisted instruction (CAI) teaching programs for six 1-hour sessions over a three-week period. Outcome Measures. Two behavioral checklists based on activity analysis of cash withdrawals and money transfers using a real ATM were used to measure average reaction time, percentage of incorrect responses, level of cues required, and time spent as generated by the VR system; also used was the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination. Results. The sensitivity of the VR-ATM was 100% for cash withdrawals and 83.3% for money transfers, and the specificity was 83% and 75%, respectively. For cash withdrawals, the average reaction time of the VR group was significantly shorter than that of the CAI group (p = 0.021). We found no significant differences in average reaction time or accuracy between groups for money transfers, although we did note positive improvement for the VR-ATM group. Conclusion. We found the VR-ATM to be usable as a valid assessment and training tool for relearning the use of ATMs prior to real-life practice in persons with ABI.
|Journal||Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation|
|Publication status||Published - 3 May 2010|
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Health Informatics