Urban positioning: 3D mapping-aided GNSS using dual-frequency pseudorange measurements from smartphones

Hoi Fung Ng, Guohao Zhang, Yiran Luo, Li Ta Hsu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

14 Citations (Scopus)


A smartphone with a highly sensitive antenna receiving numerous unhealthy measurements suffers from non-line-of-sight (NLOS) reception and multipath effects. 3D mapping-aided (3DMA) GNSS has been proven to be effective in urban environments. However, the multipath effect remains challenging for urban positioning. In nature, the new GNSS civilian L5-band signal with a shorter chip length shows a much better resistibility to multipath than the conventional L1-band signal. Therefore, this study integrated the multi-constellation L5-band measurements into 3DMA GNSS to improve the positioning performance in urban canyons, namely the L1-L5 3DMA GNSS. Furthermore, this study compares different approaches on the receiver clock biases estimation for 3DMA GNSS. Finally, the integration of different 3DMA GNSSs is presented. The experiments conducted using smartphone data show that the L1-L5 3DMA GNSS is available for a better position solution than the 3DMA GNSS with L1-band only, thereby achieving a positioning accuracy within 10 m on average.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)727-749
Number of pages23
JournalNavigation, Journal of the Institute of Navigation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 15 Dec 2021


  • GNSS L5
  • smartphones
  • urban canyons

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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