Upper limb virtual rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: Initial evaluation of the elements system

N. Mumford, J. Duckworth, P.R. Thomas, Ho Keung David Shum, G. Williams, P.H. Wilson

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

29 Citations (Scopus)


Primary objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of a tabletop virtual-reality (VR) based upper-limb rehabilitation system (called Elements) for promoting movement skill in patients with TBI. Research design: An ABA case study design with multiple baselines was employed. Baseline performance in this design is contrasted against the results during the treatment phase. Research methods: Three patients with TBI participated in 12 1-hour sessions of VR-based training. The VR system consisted of a 42-inch tabletop LCD, camera tracking system and tangible user interface. The system requires participants to move an object to cued locations while receiving augmented movement feedback to reinforce speed, trajectory and placement. Upper limb performance was assessed using these three system-measured variables and standardized tests. Trends in the time-sequence plots for each patient were assessed by sight inspection of smoothed data and then by statistical analyses. Results: Participants demonstrated improvements on movement accuracy, efficiency and bimanual dexterity and mixed improvement on speed and other measures of movement skill. Conclusion: Taken together, the findings demonstrate that the Elements system shows promise in facilitating motor learning in these TBI patients. Larger scale trials are now deemed a viable step in further validating the system. © 2010 Informa UK Ltd.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)780-791
Number of pages12
JournalBrain Injury
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Augmented feedback
  • Motor control
  • Motor learning
  • Rehabilitation
  • Traumatic brain injury
  • Virtual reality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Clinical Neurology


Dive into the research topics of 'Upper limb virtual rehabilitation for traumatic brain injury: Initial evaluation of the elements system'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this