Unpacking Structure-Oriented Cultural Differences Through a Mediated Moderation Model: A Tutorial With an Empirical Illustration

Jacky C.K. Ng, Wai Chan, Joyce Lok Yin Kwan, Sylvia Xiaohua Chen

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Explaining cultural differences in the magnitude of psychological constructs and associations between psychological constructs is pivotal in cross-cultural psychology. Although unpacking level-oriented cultural differences has been well documented in the literature, discussion on methods to unpack structure-oriented cultural differences is limited. To tackle this problem, we propose an application of mediated moderation analysis. By estimating and comparing the “indirect (mediated) moderation effects of culture” through different mediated moderators, researchers can evaluate the explanatory power of an underlying mechanism relative to other mediated moderators. To facilitate the use of the mediated moderation model to unpack structure-oriented cultural differences, we discuss technical issues on how to specify a mediated moderation model, how to interpret the moderation effects of culture, and how large the sample size needs to be. An empirical illustration is also presented to demonstrate the application of the method with syntax for different software programs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)358-380
Number of pages23
JournalJournal of Cross-Cultural Psychology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2019


  • mediated moderation
  • moderation
  • structure-oriented cultural differences
  • unpacking cultural differences

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology
  • Cultural Studies
  • Anthropology

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