Understanding the Interaction between Technology and the Learner: The Case of DLL

Ping Li, Yu-Ju Lan

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review


In our Keynote Article (henceforth KA) we outlined the DLL framework for using cutting-edge digital technologies to enhance second language (L2) learning and representation. L2 is an excellent example for illustrating how the development of emerging technologies may intersect with education due to the complexity and relevant instructional practices involved. Although our KA had much to say about the different types of technologies (e.g., mobile learning, virtual
reality, and digital games) and the impacts that they bring to L2 learning in particular and to education in general, our goal was to understand how the features/affordances of these technologies could be better applied to enhance L2 learning effectiveness. At the outset we considered the gaps in the literature as the starting points of our discussion, specifically, the mismatch between technological features and learner-specific characteristics. Without understanding how the technologies may be relevant to a given task (L2 learning in this case), the application of a new technology will be blind. At the same time, without understanding how the learner characteristics fit a given technology, the use of a technology will be fruitless.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)402-405
Number of pages4
JournalBilingualism: Language and Cognition
Issue number3
Early online date9 Nov 2021
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • digital language learning
  • technology and learning
  • personalized learning and big data
  • individual difference


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