Uncertainty assessments of load deformation from different gps time series products, GRACE estimates and model predictions: A case study over Europe

Song Yun Wang, Jin Li, Jianli Chen, Xiao Gong Hu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


A good understanding of the accuracy of the Global Positioning System (GPS) surface displacements provided by different processing centers plays an important role in load deformation analysis. We estimate the noise level in both vertical and horizontal directions for four representative GPS time series products, and compare GPS results with load deformation derived from the Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) gravity measurements and climate models in Europe. For the extracted linear trend signals, the differences among different GPS series are small in all the three (east, north, and up) directions, while for the annual signals the differences are large. The mean standard deviations of annual amplitudes retrieved from the four GPS series are 3.54 mm in the vertical component (69% of the signal itself) and ~ 0.3 mm in the horizontal component (30% of the signal itself). The Scripps Orbit and Permanent Array Center (SOPAC) and MEaSUREs series have the lowest noise level in vertical and horizontal directions, respectively. Through con-sistency/discrepancy analysis among GPS, GRACE, and model vertical series, we find that the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Nevada Geodetic Laboratory (NGL) series show good consistency, the SOPAC series show good agreements in annual signal with the GRACE and model, and the MEaSUREs series show substantially large annual amplitude. We discuss the possible reasons for the notable differences among GPS time series products.

Original languageEnglish
Article number2765
JournalRemote Sensing
Issue number14
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jul 2021
Externally publishedYes


  • GPS
  • Load deformation
  • Model
  • Noise

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Earth and Planetary Sciences(all)

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