Ultrasound-assisted heterogeneous activation of peroxymonosulphate by natural pyrite for 2,4-diclorophenol degradation in water: Synergistic effects, pathway and mechanism

Zeng Hui Diao, Zi Yu Lin, Xi Zhen Chen, Liu Yan, Fu Xin Dong, Wei Qian, Ling Jun Kong, Jian Jun Du, Wei Chu

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35 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the natural pyrite was firstly used as peroxymonosulphate (PMS) activator in conjunction with ultrasonic irradiation (US) for 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) degradation in water. The most relevant findings indicated that a superior degradation of 2,4-DCP has been successfully achieved in pyrite/PMS/US system compared with pyrite/PMS and/or pyrite/US systems, which involved a synergistic effect between sonolysis and Fenton-like reaction. Within 120 min, nearly 98% of 2,4-DCP could be degraded at optimum reaction conditions of pyrite 1.00 g L−1, 2,4-DCP 10 mg L−1, PMS 2.00 mM and pH 4.02. A significantly enhanced PMS decomposition was probably ascribed to the sonochemistry (PMS/US and pyrite/US systems) and catalytic chemistry (pyrite/PMS system) under acidic conditions. Both SO4 [rad]− and HO[rad] took part in reaction process, while the SO4 [rad]− was dominant for 2,4-DCP degradation. A total of six intermediate products including 3,5-dichlorocatechol, 2-chlorophenol, 4-chlorocatechol, hydroquinone, maleic acid and oxalic acid were identified using GC/MS analyses to clarify the possible degradation pathways, which involved hydroxylation and substitution reactions. Compared to other Fenton reaction systems, both maximum degradation and mineralization levels of 2,4-DCP have been obtained from pyrite/PMS/US system. This study provides an interesting insight for PMS activation by the natural mineral-based catalyst with US irradiation for in situ organic pollutants remediation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number123771
JournalChemical Engineering Journal
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jun 2020


  • 2,4-dichlorophenol
  • Fenton reaction
  • Peroxymonosulphate
  • Pyrite
  • Sulfate radicals
  • Ultrasound

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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