Type D personality negatively associated with self-care in Chinese heart failure patients

Xi Cao, Xiu Hua Wang, Mi Ling Eliza Wong, Choi Kai Chow, Sek Ying Chair

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

15 Citations (Scopus)


Background: Little is known about the association between type D personality and self-care behaviors in heart failure (HF) patients. We examined the effect of type D personality on self-care behaviors and self-efficacy among Chinese HF patients. Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample was conducted. All participants completed the questionnaires of the self-care of HF index (V6) and type D personality scale. Demographic and clinical variables were obtained from medical records and patient interviews. The methods used for data analysis included descriptive analysis, independent-sample t-test, χ2test, and multiple linear regression. Results: A total of 127 HF patients were included and 61.4% of them were male. The average age for this study sample was 64.9 ± 12.34 years. The majority of the participants were in a New York Heart Association class III or IV (87%), and the average length of living with HF was 38.24 ± 41.1 months. A total of 33.1% of the participants were identified as having type D personality. No significant differences were determined in the demographic and clinical variables between type D and non-type D patients, except for the mean age and the length of living with HF. Type D patients were younger and had a shorter time of living with HF than their non-type D counterparts. Multiple regression demonstrated significant associations between type D personality and self-care maintenance and self-efficacy after adjusting the demographic and clinical factors. However, type D personality was not significantly associated with self-care management behaviors. Conclusions: Type D personality was negatively related to self-care maintenance and self-efficacy in Chinese HF patients. Future study is warranted to develop a tailored intervention to improve engagement in self-care behaviors in HF patients with type D personality.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)401-407
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Geriatric Cardiology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2016
Externally publishedYes


  • Heart failure
  • Self-care
  • Self-efficacy
  • Type D personality

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geriatrics and Gerontology
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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