Two-Dimensional Nanosheets-Based Soft Electro-Chemo-Mechanical Actuators: Recent Advances in Design, Construction, and Applications

Xiaolin Zhu, Ying Hu, Guan Wu, Wei Chen, Ningzhong Bao

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

4 Citations (Scopus)


Soft electro-chemo-mechanical actuators have received enormous interest in biomimetic technologies, wearable electronics, and microelectromechanical systems due to their low voltage-driven large deformation, fast response, high strain, and working durability. Two-dimensional (2D) nanosheets, which can highly promote ion-induced micromotion to macrodeformation, have outstandingly been used as prime actuator electrodes because of their ordered microstructures, tunable interlayer spaces, controllable electrochemical activities, and excellent electrical and mechanical properties. Here, this review primarily focuses on the recent advances in key 2D electro-chemo-mechanical actuator electrodes, including graphene, MXenes, graphitic carbon nitride, molybdenum disulfide, black phosphorus, and graphdiyne. Various synthetic strategies of electrode design, such as microstructural architecture, active-site regulation, and channel construction, for achieving high ionic kinetic transport, charge storage, and electrochemical-mechanical performances are discussed. The advanced structures with diverse building principles that provide ordered and active ionic pathways for high actuation speed and strain are emphasized. Furthermore, the innovative applications of electro-chemo-mechanical actuators toward biomimetic robots and smart devices are highlighted. Finally, the current challenges and future perspectives are also proposed. The aim of this review is to provide the guiding significance for scientific researchers and industrial engineers to design higher performance next-generation electro-chemo-mechanical actuators.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9273-9298
Number of pages26
JournalACS Nano
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - 22 Jun 2021


  • 2D nanosheets
  • biomimetic applications
  • electro-chemo-mechanical actuators
  • electroactivity
  • fast response
  • high stability
  • large strain
  • microstructural architecture

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)
  • Engineering(all)
  • Physics and Astronomy(all)

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