TRiForm: Formation Control for Underwater Sensor Networks with Measurement Errors

Hejun Wu, Zhongheng Yang, Jiannong Cao, Liqian Lai

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

8 Citations (Scopus)


The formation control of mobile underwater wireless sensor networks (MUWSNs) is difficult due to the severe errors in distance and motion measurements. To address this problem, we propose a distributed formation control scheme, TRiForm (Triangle Formation). TRiForm constructs a virtual structure that is a rigid graph formed by triangles of nodes in an MUWSN for high reliability and efficiency in formation control. Furthermore, it utilizes the anchor information to detect and to compensate for measurement errors. We have proven the correctness of the rigidity graph construction by TRiForm. We have also evaluated TRiForm in various scenarios using simulation with the measured parameters from real underwater sensor nodes. The results show that TRiForm can successfully maintain the formations of an MUWSN and control the MUWSN to reach the predefined destination under distance and motion measurement errors.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9075397
Pages (from-to)7679-7691
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2020


  • Formation Control
  • Graph Rigidity
  • Localization
  • Mobile Sensor Node
  • Underwater Wireless Sensor Networks

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Automotive Engineering
  • Aerospace Engineering
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Applied Mathematics


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