Treatment of contaminated water laden with 4-chlorophenol using coconut shell waste-based activated carbon modified with chemical agents

Tonni Agustiono Kurniawan, Wai Hung Lo, Mika ET Sillanpää

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


This laboratory study investigates the performances of coconut shell waste-based activated carbon (CSBAC) in removing 4-chlorophenol (4-CP) from contaminated water. To improve its removal for target compound, the surface of CSBAC was modified with TiO2, NaOH, and/or HNO3. Under optimized conditions at the same initial concentration of 25 mg/L, the NaOH-treated CSBAC could remove 91% of 4-CP, compared to the HNO3-oxidized CSBAC (60%) or the TiO2-coated CSBAC (72%). Although the NaOH-treated CSBAC could remove 91% of 4-CP, the adsorption treatment using this adsorbent alone was unable to meet the effluent limit of lower than 1 mg/L. Therefore, subsequent biological processes are required to complement the removal of 4-CP from wastewater.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)460-472
Number of pages13
JournalSeparation Science and Technology
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2011


  • Agricultural waste
  • Low-cost adsorbents
  • Physicochemical treatments
  • Surface modification
  • Water pollution control

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Process Chemistry and Technology
  • Chemical Engineering(all)
  • Filtration and Separation

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