Transmission mitigation of COVID-19: Exhaled contaminants removal and energy saving in densely occupied space by impinging jet ventilation

Chao QIN, Shuzhen Zhang, Zhengtong Li, Chih-yung Wen, Wei-Zhen LU (Corresponding Author)

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


The pandemic of COVID-19 and its transmission ability raise much attention to ventilation design as indoor-transmission outstrips outdoor-transmission. Impinging jet ventilation (IJV) systems might be promising to ventilate densely occupied large spaces due to their high jet momentum. However, their performances in densely occupied spaces have rarely been explored. This study proposes a modified IJV system and evaluates its performance numerically in a densely occupied classroom mockup. A new assessment formula is also proposed to evaluate the nonuniformity of target species CO2. The infector is assumed as the manikin with the lowest tracer gas concentration in the head region. The main results include: a) Indoor air quality (IAQ) in the classroom is improved significantly compared with a mixing ventilation system, i.e., averaged CO2 in the occupied zone (OZ) is reduced from 1287 ppm to 1078 ppm, the OZ-averaged mean age of air is reduced from 439 s to 177 s; b) The mean infection probability is reduced from 0.047% to 0.027% with an infector, and from 0.035% to 0.024% with another infector; c) Cooling coil load is reduced by around 21.0%; d) Overall evaluation indices meet the requirements for comfortable environments, i.e., the temperature difference between head and ankle is within 3 °C and the OZ-averaged predictive mean vote is in the range of −0.5 - 0.5; e) Thermal comfort level and uniformity are decreased, e.g., overcooling near diffuser at ankle level. Summarily, the target system effectively improves IAQ, reduces exhaled-contaminant concentration in head regions, and saves energy as well.
Original languageEnglish
Article number110066
Number of pages13
JournalBuilding and Environment
Issue number110066
Publication statusPublished - 15 Mar 2023


  • Densely occupied space
  • Impinging jet ventilation
  • Breathing air quality
  • Thermal comfort
  • Energy saving


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