Gene expression of the chick retina was examined during the early development of lens-induced myopia (LIM) using whole transcriptome sequencing. Monocular treatment of the right eyes with −10 diopter (D) lenses was performed on newly born chicks for one day (LIM-24) or two days (LIM-48), while the contralateral eyes without lenses served as controls. Myopia development was confirmed by demonstrating significant elongation of the optical axis in lens-treated eyes compared to untreated control eyes. RNA was extracted and RNA-seq was performed using the Illumina HiSeq TM 2000 platform. Data analysis was carried out on a Partek® Flow platform. Using screening criteria of ≥1.30-fold change and a false discovery rate <1%, 11 (five down-regulated and six up-regulated) and 35 differentially expressed genes (six down-regulated and twenty-nine up-regulated) were identified at 24 hours and 48 hours, respectively. Using another cohort for validation, Quantitative PCR confirmed significant changes in the expression of VIP and UTS2B mRNA (P <0.05) after only 24 hours of LIM treatment and numerical changes in the expression for PCGF5 and FOXG1, which were consistent with transcriptome sequencing but did not reach statistical significance. These data suggest that concerted changes of retinal gene expression may be instrumental in the initiation of axial elongation and myopia development.