Tracer kinetic modeling of 11C-acetate applied in the liver with positron emission tomography

Sirong Chen, Chilai Ho, Dagan Feng, Zheru Chi

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

36 Citations (Scopus)


It is well known that 50%-50% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) do not show increased18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake. Recent research studies have demonstrated that11C-acetate may be a complementary tracer to FDG in positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of HCC in the liver. Quantitative dynamic modeling is, therefore, conducted to evaluate the kinetic characteristics of this tracer in HCC and nontumor liver tissue. A three-compartment model consisting of four parameters with dual inputs is proposed and compared with that of five parameters. Twelve regions of dynamic datasets of the liver extracted from six patients are used to test the models. Estimation of the adequacy of these models is based on Akaike Information Criteria (AIC) and Schwarz Criteria (SC) by statistical study. The forward clearance K = K1* k3/(k2+ k3) is estimated and defined as a new parameter called the local hepatic metabolic rate-constant of acetate (LHMRAct) using both the weighted nonlinear least squares (NLS) and the linear Patlak methods. Preliminary results show that the LHMRAct of the HCC is significantly higher than that of the nontumor liver tissue. These model parameters provide quantitative evidence and understanding on the kinetic basis of11C-acetate for its potential role in the imaging of HCC using PET.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)426-432
Number of pages7
JournalIEEE Transactions on Medical Imaging
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2004


  • 11 C-acetate
  • Local hepatic metabolic rate-constant of acetate (LHMRAct)
  • Modeling
  • Parameter estimation
  • Positron emission tomography (PET)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Computational Theory and Mathematics


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