Toroidal vibrations of anisotropic spheres with spherical isotropy

K. T. Chau

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

18 Citations (Scopus)


This paper derives the exact frequency equation for the toroidal mode of vibrations for a spherically isotropic elastic sphere. The vibrations of spherically isotropic solids are solved by introducing two wave potentials (6p and 9) such that the general solutions for free vibrations can be classified into two independent modes of vibrations, namely the “toroidal” and “spheroidal” modes. Both of these vibration modes can be written in terms of spherical harmonics of degree n. The frequency equation for the toroidal modes is obtained analytically, and it depends on both n and/3 [= (C11- C12)/(2C44)], where Cu, C12, and C44have the usual meaning of moduli and are defined in Eqs. (2)-(3); and, as expected, Lamb’s (1882) classical frequency equation is recovered as the isotropic limit. Numerical results show that the normalized frequency wa/Cs increases with both n and/3, where w is the circular frequency of vibration, a the radius of the sphere, and Cs is the shear wave speed on the spherical surfaces. The natural frequencies for spheres of transversely isotropic minerals and crystals, with/3 ranging from 0.3719 to 1.8897, are also tabulated. However, two coupled differential equations are obtained for the spheroidal modes, which remain to be solved.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)59-65
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Applied Mechanics, Transactions ASME
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 1998

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Mechanical Engineering


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