Tone mergers in Hong Kong Cantonese: An asymmetry of production and perception

Roxana S.Y. Fung, Chris K.C. Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


This paper examines the tone-merging phenomenon in Hong Kong Cantonese. Both perception and production tasks were administered to 120 participants with ages ranging from 20 to 58 years. After considering the complicated interplay of perception and production confusion, the paper provides statistical evidence that three tonal contrasts have undergone merging in contemporary Hong Kong Cantonese. They are Full-merger T2 and T5, where contrast is collapsed in both perception and production; Partial-merger T3 and T6, where contrast is collapsed in production only; and Near-merger T4 and T6, where contrast is collapsed in perception but maintained in production.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)EL424-EL430
JournalJournal of the Acoustical Society of America
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - 1 Nov 2019

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • Acoustics and Ultrasonics

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