To evaluate the effects of a simplified hand washing improvement program in schoolchildren with mild intellectual disability: A pilot study

Regina Lai Tong Lee, Hong Lee

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

23 Citations (Scopus)


A quasi-experimental study using a pretest-posttest design with a control group was used to evaluate the effects of a simplified 5-step multimedia visualization hand hygiene improvement program by schoolchildren with mild intellectual disability (MID). A total of twenty schoolchildren aged 6-12 years old with MID (12 males) were recruited and they were assigned into intervention (n= 10) and control (n= 10) groups. To evaluate the quality of their hand washing, Glow gel, which contains plastic simulated germs that are visible under an ultra-violet lamp, was applied to participants' hands to assess the quality of hand washing by comparing the amount of visible Glow gel before and after hand washing using a 4-point scale. Four raters used this 4-point scale to assess the quality of hand washing through digital photo images of the participants' hands. A total of eight digital photos per participant were taken. A fifteen-minute hand washing training session was conducted every school day for 4 weeks for the intervention group. Those in the control group received no training. A multimedia visual package on steps of hand washing was presented together with a reward system, whereby a number of stars were earned each week depending on the quality of hand washing. Results showed encouraging findings, as the schoolchildren in the intervention group showed significant improvement in hand washing (p< 0.001) and the improvement was stronger than that of the control group (p= 0.02). To conclude, a systematic instruction emphasizing multimedia visualization in a hand washing improvement program can be successfully implemented in a special school, and the effect of integrating multimedia visuals in the hand hygiene program could improve hand hygiene among schoolchildren with MID.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3014-3025
Number of pages12
JournalResearch in Developmental Disabilities
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2014


  • Effectiveness
  • Multisensory stimulation
  • Schoolchildren with mild intellectual disability
  • Simplified hand hygiene program

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Clinical Psychology


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