TiO2-based transparent conducting oxides; The search for optimum electrical conductivity using a combinatorial approach

Andreas Kafizas, Nuruzzaman Noor, Claire J. Carmalt, Ivan P. Parkin

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

27 Citations (Scopus)


A series of Nb, W, N and F:TiO2 thin-film systems were grown by a combinatorial atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition (APCVD) process. Conditions were varied in each experiment to produce a series of films with compositional gradient. For each system, the electrical resistivity at a number of positions (up to 200 on each film) was screened using a high-throughput tool. This allowed easy identification of the material with the lowest electrical resistivity across a reservoir of combinatorially produced samples. The most conductive material within each system was analysed in depth by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, wavelength dispersive X-ray analysis, X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, UV-visible-NIR spectroscopy and Hall effect measurements. The most electrically conductive materials are found in the F:TiO2 [Fs ≈ 4-5%, ρ = 0.21 Ω cm, μ = 3.6 cm2 V-1 s-1, n = 8.1 × 1018 cm-3] and Nb:TiO2 [Nb = 0.07 ± 0.03%, ρ = 0.22 Ω cm, μ = 3.4 cm2 V -1 s-1, n = 8.3 × 1018 cm-3] systems. The electrical resistivities reported for Nb:TiO2 and W:TiO2 are the best to date for materials grown by APCVD. Extensive comparisons with the literature are made and summarised in this report.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)6335-6346
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Materials Chemistry C
Issue number39
Publication statusPublished - 21 Oct 2013
Externally publishedYes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Chemistry

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