Timed 360° Turn Test for Assessing People with Chronic Stroke

Clara H. Shiu, Sheung Mei Shamay Ng, Patrick W. Kwong, Tai Wa Liu, Wing Cheung Eric Tam, Shirley S. Fong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

16 Citations (Scopus)


Objectives To investigate (1) the intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability of the timed 360° turn test in subjects with stroke; (2) the concurrent validity of the timed 360° turn test by exploring its correlation with other measures of stroke-specific impairments; and (3) the cutoff times that best discriminate individuals with stroke from healthy older adults. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting University-based rehabilitation center. Participants Individuals with chronic stroke (n=72) and healthy individuals (n=35) of similar age (N=107). Interventions Not applicable. Main Outcome Measures The timed 360° turn test was administered along with the Fugl-Meyer assessment of the lower extremity, measurement of muscle strength of ankle dorsiflexors and plantarflexors using a handheld dynamometer, Berg Balance Scale, limit of stability test, five times sit-to-stand (FTSTS) test, 10-m walk test, and timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Results The 360° turn times showed excellent intrarater, interrater, and test-retest reliability in individuals with stroke. A minimal detectable change of.76 seconds was found for subjects turning toward the affected side and 1.22 seconds for subjects turning toward the unaffected side. The 360° turn times were found to correlate significantly with Fugl-Meyer assessment of the lower extremity scores, dosiflexor strength of the affected ankle, plantarflexor strength of both ankles, FTSTS test times, balance performance, gait speed, and TUG test times. The 360° turn times of 3.43 to 3.49 seconds were shown to discriminate reliably between individuals with stroke and healthy older adults. Conclusions The timed 360° turn test is a reliable and an easily administered clinical tool to assess the turning ability of subjects with chronic stroke.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)536-544
Number of pages9
JournalArchives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2016


  • Rehabilitation
  • Stroke

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation
  • Rehabilitation

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