Thyroid hormone affects both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in rat arteries

Yin Cai, Michael M. Manio, George P.H. Leung, Aimin Xu, Eva H.C. Tang, Paul M. Vanhoutte

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

30 Citations (Scopus)


Hypothyroidism impairs endothelium-dependent dilatations, while hyperthyroidism augments the production of endothelial nitric oxide. Thus, experiments were designed to determine if thyroid hormone causes endothelium-dependent responses, or alleviates diabetic endothelial dysfunction. Isometric tension was measured in rings with or without endothelium of arteries from normal and diabetic Sprague-Dawley rats. Release of 6-keto prostaglandin F and thromboxane B2 were measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and protein levels [endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), cyclooxygenases (COX)] by immunoblotting. Triiodothyronine (T3) caused concentration-dependent (3×10-6-3×10-5 M) relaxations in mesenteric (pEC50, 4.96±0.19) and femoral (pEC50, 4.57±0.35) arteries without endothelium. In femoral arteries of rats with diabetes, 5-methylamino-2-[[(2S,3R,5R,8S,9S)-3,5,9-trimethyl-2-(1-oxo-(1H-pyrrol-2- -yl)propan-2-yl)-1,7-dioxaspiro-(5,5)undecan-8-yl]methyl]benzooxazole-4-carboxylic acid (A23187, 3×10-7 to 10-6 M) caused partly endothelium-dependent contractions. After chronic T3-treatment with (10 μg/kg/day; four weeks), the contractions to A23187 of preparations with and without endothelium were comparable, the thromboxane B2-release was reduced (by 38.1±9.2%). The pEC50 of 9, 11-dideoxy-11α, 9α-epoxymethanoprostaglandin F (U46619, TP-receptor agonist) was increased in T3-treated diabetic rats compared with controls (8.53±0.06 vs 7.94±0.09). The protein expression of eNOS increased (by 228%) but that of COX-1 decreased (by 35%) after chronic T3 treatment. In human umbilical vein endothelial cells incubated for one week with T3 (10-10-10-7 M) in the presence but not in the absence of interleukin-1β (1 ng/ml), the expression of eNOS was increased compared to control. In conclusion, thyroid hormone acutely relaxes mesenteric and femoral vascular smooth muscle, but given chronically reduces the release of endothelium-derived vasoconstrictor prostanoids while enhancing the responsiveness of TP receptors of vascular smooth muscle.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)18-28
Number of pages11
JournalEuropean Journal of Pharmacology
Early online date6 Dec 2014
Publication statusPublished - 15 Jan 2015
Externally publishedYes


  • COX-1
  • Endothelium-derivedcontractingfactor(s)
  • eNOS
  • TP receptors
  • Type 1diabetes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology


Dive into the research topics of 'Thyroid hormone affects both endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cells in rat arteries'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this