Three-dimensional metamaterials: From split ring resonator to toroidal metamolecule

Pin Chieh Wu, Wei Ting Chen, Yao Wei Huang, Wei Lun Hsu, Chun Yen Liao, Vassili A. Fedotov, Vassili Savinov, Nikolay I. Zheludev, Din Ping Tsai

Research output: Chapter in book / Conference proceedingConference article published in proceeding or bookAcademic researchpeer-review

7 Citations (Scopus)


Split ring resonator (SRR) has attracted wide attentions since the discovery of negative refraction in 2002. Here, we designed and fabricated vertical SRR (VSRR) arrays and toroidal metamolecule by using double exposure e-beam lithography with precise alignment technique, and their resonance behaviors are subsequently studied in optical region. The fundamental resonance properties of VSRR are studied as well as the plasmon coupling in a VSRR dimer structure by changing the gap distance between SRRs. In addition, we proposed a three-dimensional toroidal structure composed a VSRR with a dumbbell structure that supported a toroidal resonance under normal incidence with broadband working frequency. Such toroidal metamaterial confines effectively the electric as well as magnetic energy paving a way for promising applications in the field of plasmonics, such as integrated 3D plasmonic metamaterials, plasmonic biosensor and lasing spaser.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publicationPlasmonics
Subtitle of host publicationMetallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties XII
EditorsAllan D. Boardman
ISBN (Electronic)9781628411904
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2014
Externally publishedYes
EventPlasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties XII - San Diego, United States
Duration: 17 Aug 201421 Aug 2014

Publication series

NameProceedings of SPIE - The International Society for Optical Engineering
ISSN (Print)0277-786X
ISSN (Electronic)1996-756X


ConferencePlasmonics: Metallic Nanostructures and Their Optical Properties XII
Country/TerritoryUnited States
CitySan Diego


  • magnetic resonance
  • Metamaterials
  • split-ring resonator
  • surface plasmon
  • toroidal resonance

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Electronic, Optical and Magnetic Materials
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Computer Science Applications
  • Applied Mathematics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering


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