Thermal perceptions of the elderly, use patterns and satisfaction with open space

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

25 Citations (Scopus)


The elderly is a main user group of open space. Well maintained open spaces can increase their physical health and well-being. It is recognized that thermal perception has an essential impact on people's outdoor activities and use of open space. However, the specific association between influencing factors and the elderly's thermal perception and use of open space has not yet been fully investigated. On-site measurements of thermal conditions were carried out and 485 questionnaire surveys were conducted in six parks in two districts in Hong Kong. The ordered probit model and the binary logistics regression model were employed to investigate the relationship between the factors and the elderly's thermal perceptions, using the measure of thermal comfort, thermal sensation and thermal acceptability and use patterns and satisfaction with using open space. The study adopted a comprehensive framework, which included individual, physical and social and psychological factors. The results show the factors which influence the elderly's thermal perceptions vary in the winter and summer and there is a significant association between thermal acceptability and satisfaction with open space. Under the trend of global warming, more attention should be paid to mitigate summer heat stress in outdoor space. The empirical findings of the elderly's thermal perceptions and use patterns of parks in the summer provide insight for urban planners when considering flexible and responsive designs that reflect the special needs of the elderly.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)44-60
Number of pages17
JournalLandscape and Urban Planning
Publication statusPublished - May 2019


  • Elderly
  • Open space
  • Satisfaction
  • Thermal perceptions
  • Use patterns

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ecology
  • Nature and Landscape Conservation
  • Management, Monitoring, Policy and Law


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