Theoretical study on pile length optimization of pile groups and piled rafts

Yat Fai Leung, A. Klar, K. Soga

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

64 Citations (Scopus)


Pile groups are frequently designed with equal or similar pile lengths. However, the significant interaction effects among equal-length piles imply that this may not be the optimized configuration. This paper presents the optimization analyses of piled rafts and freestanding pile groups, where pile lengths are varied across the group to optimize the overall foundation performance. The results of the analyses are applicable in cases where the piles derive a majority of the capacity from the frictional resistance. It is demonstrated that, with the same amount of total pile material, an optimized pile length configuration can both increase the overall stiffness of the foundation and reduce the differential settlements that may cause distortion and cracking of the superstructure. The benefits of the optimization can be translated to economic and environmental savings as less material is required to attain the required level of foundation performances. The reliability of the optimization benefits in relation to construction-induced variability is also discussed.
Original languageEnglish
Article number003002QGT
Pages (from-to)319-330
Number of pages12
JournalJournal of Geotechnical and Geoenvironmental Engineering
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2010
Externally publishedYes


  • Optimization
  • Pile groups
  • Raft foundations

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Geotechnical Engineering and Engineering Geology

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