Theoretical analysis of PAM-N and M-QAM BER computation with single-sideband signal

Dongxu Lu, Xian Zhou, Yuqiang Yang, Jiahao Huo, Jinhui Yuan, Keping Long, Changyuan Yu, Alan Pak Tao Lau, Chao Lu

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


In this paper, the theoretical bit error rate (BER) of N-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-N) and M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM) have been studied and compared under different scenarios, including (i) PAM with intensity modulation with direct detection (IM/DD) and field modulation with detection (FMD) (including coherent detection and single-sideband modulation with direct detection (SSB-DD)), and (ii) QAM with coherent detection and SSB-DD. Considering the relationship between the symbol spacing and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), we provide the mathematical BER equations, including the optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) and carrier-to-signal power ratio (CSPR), especially for PAM signals. To verify the validity of our theoretical expressions for SSB systems, transmissions with 224-Gb/s SSB-PAM4/16QAM signals using the Kramers-Kronig (KK) receiver were implemented on a unified optical system platform. The simulation results agreed well with theoretical calculations both in back-to-back (BtB) and 120-km transmission scenarios, which showed that the BER evaluation methods can serve as a theoretical guidance and system assessment criteria for SSB scenarios.

Original languageEnglish
Article number182312
JournalScience China Information Sciences
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2021


  • BER computation
  • Kramers-Kronig receiver
  • M-ary quadrature amplitude modulation (M-QAM)
  • N-level pulse amplitude modulation (PAM-N)
  • single-sideband (SSB)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Computer Science


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