The usability of visitor attractions: state-of-the-art

Sandra Navarro-Ruiz, Bob McKercher

Research output: Journal article publicationReview articleAcademic researchpeer-review

12 Citations (Scopus)


Purpose: Visitor attractions constitute the essence of the tourism phenomenon. However, management techniques that are expressly designed for tourism and develop different uses/activities and subsequently influence visitor experiences are under-researched. Hence, the purpose of this study is to develop a conceptual framework that provides a bridge between on-site management, visitor attraction development and visitor experience by introducing a novel concept: “usability of visitor attractions.” This new concept captures how managers can develop uses for visitors to experience the attraction. Thus, this study explores this concept and serves as the foundation for further research on this topic. Design/methodology/approach: The systematization of the state of the art is based on an exhaustive desk research review of both academic and grey literature to endorse the “usability of visitor attractions” concept. Findings: The literature review reveals that visitor attraction management affects visitor experience. To succeed, managers should consider the ease of use and the design of activities. Therefore, an innovative conceptual model is built to explore how on-site management techniques based on this new concept impact on visitor’s experience. Originality/value: Research on visitor experience in attractions has neglected the impact of on-site management tools hitherto. Therefore, the originality of the study lies on providing a robust framework that enlightens how visitor attraction management affects visitor experience by developing the usability. The study proposes a novel concept and an original model that will be of a critical interest to tourism academia and will serve as practical guidance for attraction managers.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)497-509
Number of pages13
JournalTourism Review
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2 Jan 2020


  • On-site management
  • Usability
  • Usability of visitor attractions
  • Visitor attraction management
  • Visitor engagement
  • Visitor experience

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Geography, Planning and Development
  • Tourism, Leisure and Hospitality Management


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