The shape of MaaS : The potential for MaaS Lite: The potential for MaaS Lite

Andrew Pickford, Edward Chung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

19 Citations (Scopus)


Mobility as a Service (MaaS) is about improving mobility for people. Since Gothenburg piloted the first multi-modal Mobility as a Service (MaaS) scheme from 2012, there have been many further attempts at introducing connected and bundled services globally, invariably provided as a mobile app and a single, simple ticketing interface. As in any emerging paradigm, the varying flavour, or ‘shapes’ of MaaS that are piloted reflect the search for a sustainable business model and connectivity between transport operators at varying levels that includes risk reallocation and data sharing. The varying levels of success of MaaS and Mobility on Demand (MOD) lead the authors to propose MaaS Lite, which reflects an incremental approach to MaaS based on a simpler organisational arrangement that does not depend upon the introduction of a Mobility Operator as a new player. MaaS Lite also recognises that most trips are not complex at all, often based on one or two connected mechanised modes that meets highly local needs, including FMLM service connectivity. Overall, MaaS is not a ‘one size fits all’ solution for all regions but the benefits of the highly targeted MaaS Lite could realise early public benefits as a first step in the development of a multi-phased ‘services road map’ that evolves towards the implementation of multi-modal, region-wide operationally integrated MaaS. Case studies in Hong Kong and Brisbane demonstrate the merits of MaaS Lite in these two contrasting environments having different regulatory regimes, population densities and levels of private car ownership.

Original languageEnglish
JournalIATSS Research
Publication statusAccepted/In press - 1 Jan 2019


  • Demand responsive transport
  • FMLM
  • Integrated transport
  • Interoperable ticketing
  • Mobility as a service
  • Mobility on demand

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transportation
  • Safety Research
  • Urban Studies
  • General Engineering


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