The revised two-factor Study Process Questionnaire: R-SPQ-2F

J. Biggs, D. Kember, Yin Ping Leung

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

1118 Citations (Scopus)


AIM: To produce a revised two-factor version of the Study Process Questionnaire (R-SPQ-2F) suitable for use by teachers in evaluating the learning approaches of their students. The revised instrument assesses deep and surface approaches only, using fewer items. METHOD: A set of 43 items was drawn up for the initial tests. These were derived from: the original version of the SPQ, modified items from the SPQ, and new items. A process of testing and refinement eventuated in deep and surface motive and strategy scales each with 5 items, 10 items per approach score. The final version was tested using reliability procedures and confirmatory factor analysis. SAMPLE: The sample for the testing and refinement process consisted of 229 students from the health sciences faculty of a university in Hong Kong. A fresh sample of 495 undergraduate students from a variety of departments of the same university was used for the test of the final version. RESULTS: The final version of the questionnaire had acceptable Cronbach alpha values for scale reliability. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated a good fit to the intended two-factor structure. Both deep and surface approach scales had well identified motive and strategy subscales. CONCLUSION: The revision process has resulted in a simple questionnaire which teachers can use to evaluate their own teaching and the learning approaches of their students.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)133-149
Number of pages17
JournalThe British journal of educational psychology
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jan 2001

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology


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