The relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product in Hong Kong (1992–2015): Evidence from sectoral analysis and implications on future energy policy

Ruixiaoxiao Zhang, Geoffrey Q.P. Shen, Meng Ni, Johnny Wong

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

3 Citations (Scopus)


The causal relationship between energy consumption and gross domestic product in Hong Kong from 1992 to 2015 is investigated in this study. Different from the previous studies focusing on the causal relationship between total energy consumption and total gross domestic product per capita, this study further investigates the causal relationship from sectoral perspective, including residential, commercial, industrial and transportation sectors. For each sector, the time series data of sectoral energy consumption and sectoral per capita value added are collected. To conduct the Granger causality test, the unit root test is first applied to analyse the stationarity of time series. The cointegration test is then employed to examine whether causal relationship exists in long-term. Finally, based on the aforementioned tests, both vector error correction model and vector autoregression model can be selected to determine the Granger causality between time series. It is interesting to find that the sectoral energy consumption and corresponding sectoral per capita value-added exhibit quite different causal relationships. For both residential sector and commercial sectors, a unidirectional causal relationship is found running from the sectoral per capita value added to sectoral energy consumption. Oppositely, for industrial sector and transportation sector, a unidirectional causal relationship is found running from sectoral energy consumption to sectoral per capita value added. Regarding the Granger causality test results, the indicative suggestions on energy conservation policies, energy efficiency policies and greenhouse gas emission reduction policies are discussed based on the background of Hong Kong’s economic structure and fuel types.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)215-236
Number of pages22
JournalEnergy and Environment
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2020


  • Causal relationship
  • energy implications
  • energy policy
  • gross domestic product and energy consumption
  • sectoral analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Environmental Engineering
  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Energy Engineering and Power Technology
  • Energy (miscellaneous)

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