Lack of appropriate diagnostic/prognostic tools for glioblastoma (GB) is considered one of the major setbacks in the early diagnosis and treatment of this deadly brain tumor. The current gold standard for its diagnosis and staging still relies on invasive biopsy followed by histological examination as well as molecular profiling. Nevertheless, noninvasive approaches are being explored and one example is through the investigation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) in the biofluids of GB patients. EVs are known to carry molecular cargoes such as DNA, mRNA, miRNA, proteins and lipids in almost every type of body fluids. Thus, molecular signature of GB may be present in the EVs derived from these patients. This review focuses on the diagnostic/prognostic potential of EVs in GB, through presenting recent studies on (i) molecular components of EVs, (ii) links between EVs and GB tumor microenvironment, and (iii) clinical potential of EV biomarkers, together with the technical shortcomings researchers need to consider for future studies.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging