The nexus among employment opportunities, life-cycle costs, and carbon emissions: A case study of sustainable building maintenance in Hong Kong

Yat Hung Chiang, Jing Li, Lu Zhou, Francis K.W. Wong, Tsun Ip Lam

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

45 Citations (Scopus)


Hong Kong's construction industry is currently facing problems involving a rapidly aging workforce and labor shortage. With Hong Kong as the case study, this paper illustrates how existing residential buildings can be repaired and maintained using alternative materials, in order to minimize life-cycle labor inputs, costs, or carbon emissions. With different combinations of repair and maintenance materials, two of the three objectives can be achieved at any one time, when labor inputs, costs, and carbon emissions are set as separate constraints. With our methodology, we are able to identify materials that would cost the least, emit minimum carbon levels, and require the right levels of labor resources in relation to residential building maintenance. These can support the adoption of green technologies that suit the socio-economic and physical environment of Hong Kong.
Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)326-335
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Cleaner Production
Publication statusPublished - 16 Dec 2015


  • Building maintenance
  • Carbon emission
  • Labor
  • Life-cycle cost
  • Optimization

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Environmental Science(all)
  • Strategy and Management
  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering

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