The impacts of non-motorized traffic enforcement cameras on red light violations of cyclists at signalized intersections

Huitao Lv, Haojie Li, N. N. Sze, Gang Ren

Research output: Journal article publicationJournal articleAcademic researchpeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Introduction: With a significant increase in accidents involving cyclists, more attention has been paid to cycling safety. Previous studies on traffic accident revealed that red-light violations of non-motorized vehicles have become the leading cause of crashes at signalized intersections. The objective of this study is to investigate the impact of non-motorized traffic enforcement cameras (NTECs) on the red-light running behavior of cyclists, including ordinary e-bike riders, delivery e-bike riders, and bicyclists. Method: An observational study of 5,217 cyclists was conducted at six primary intersections in the downtown areas of Nanjing, China. A random parameter logit model was used to explore the safety effect of the NTECs and other factors related to red-light violation behavior. Results: The results indicate higher reductions in red-light violations at intersections with the NTECs compared than at the non-adjacent intersections without the NTECs. Furthermore, the NTECs demonstrated a beneficial but smaller impact on the reduction of violations at adjacent intersections. Another primary finding was that the effects of the NTECs varied among three types of cyclists (ordinary e-bike riders, delivery e-bike riders, and bicyclists). Conclusions: The NTECs were found to be most effective in the case of delivery e-bike riders, followed by ordinary e-bike riders and bicyclists. In addition, the factors associated with the red-light violation behaviors of these three groups were also found to be different. In general, group size, maximum waiting time, waiting position, and visual search were significantly related to the probability of red-light violations in all three groups. Practical Applications: Based on these findings, this study provides some feasible suggestions for improving the effect of the NTECs and for the future extension of the NTECs installation, such as the randomization of the enforcement and publicity campaigns.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)310-322
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Safety Research
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Cyclist safety
  • Non-motorized traffic enforcement camera
  • Red-light violation
  • Signalized intersection

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • Safety, Risk, Reliability and Quality


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